Comparative Study References:
1. Staats PS, Chafin TB, Golovac S, Kim CK, Li S, Richardson WB, Vallejo R, Wahezi SE, Washabaugh EP, Benyamin RM, MiDAS ENCORE Investigators. Long-term safety and efficacy of minimally invasive lumbar decompression procedure for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication: 2-year results of MiDAS ENCORE. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43:789-794.
2. Food and Drug Administration (US) [Internet]. [Silver Spring, MD]: CDRH; 2015. Superion® InterSpinous Spacer Summary of Safety & Effectiveness Data. Available from:
3. Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, et al. Surgical versus nonsurgical therapy for lumbar spinal stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:794-810.
4. Strömqvist BH, Berg S, Gerdhem P, et al. X-Stop versus decompressive surgery for lumbar neurogenic intermittent claudication: randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. Spine. 2013;38:1436-1442.
5. Irmola TM, Hakkinen A, Jarvenpaa S, Marttinen I, Vihtonen K, Neva M. Reoperation rates following instrumented lumbar spine fusion. Spine. 2017 Jun 13 [Epub ahead of print].
6. Forsth P, Olafsson G, Carlsson T, et al. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Fusion Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1413-1423.
7. Ong KL, Auerbach JD, Lau E, Schmier J, Ochoa JA. Peroperative outcomes, complications, and costs associated with lumbar spinal fusion in older patients with spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis. Neurosurg Focus. 2014;36:E5.
8. Choi JM, Choi MK, Kim SB. Perioperative Results and Complications after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Spinal Stenosis in Geriatric Patients over than 70 Years Old. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2017;60:684-690.
9. Fritzell P, Hagg O, Wessberg P, Nordwall A. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar Fusion Versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine. 2001;26:2521-2534.